گیاه‌پالایی خاک‌های آلوده به هیدروکربن‌های نفتی در اطراف پالایشگاه اصفهان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای علوم محیط زیست، گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان، (خوراسگان)

2 استاد، گروه مهندسی محیط زیست، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه صنعتی خواجه نصیرالدین طوسی، تهران

3 استادیار، گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

چکیده

ترکیبات نفتی یکی از آلودگی‌های متداول خاک در اطراف پالایشگاه‌های نفت است که اغلب منجر به آلودگی آب‌های زیرزمینی نیز می‌شود. گیاه‌پالایی برای پالایش خاک‌های آلوده نسبت به سایر روش‌های فیزیکی- شیمیایی، مؤثر و مقرون به‌صرفه است. در پژوهش حاضر گیاه‌پالایی خاک‌های آلوده به هیدروکربن‌های نفتی در اطراف پالایشگاه اصفهان بررسی شد. ابتدا درصد جوانه‌زنی چهار گیاه فستوکا، سورگوم، آگروپایرون و جو در خاک آلوده و شاهد بررسی شد. دو گیاه سورگوم و جو که دارای بیشترین درصد جوانه‌زنی در خاک آلوده بود، برای آزمایش نهایی گیاه‌پالایی انتخاب شد. پس از گذشت 120 روز از کاشت گیاهان، وزن خشک ریشه و اندام هوایی، تعداد باکتری‌های کل و نفت‌خوار، تنفس میکربی و غلظت هیدروکربن‌های نفتی خاک تعیین شد. تفاوت معنی‌داری بین تعداد باکتری‌های کل و نفت‌خوار در خاک کشت شده با خاک بدون گیاه وجود داشت. میزان تنفس میکربی در ریزوسفر سورگوم در خاک آلوده بیشتر از ریزوسفر جو بود و میزان کاهش غلظت هیدروکربن‌های نفتی در خاک آلوده کشت شده با سورگوم و جو حدود 52 تا 64 درصد تعیین شد که نسبت به خاک آلوده بدون گیاه 30 درصد بیشتر بود؛ بنابراین سورگوم و جو برای کاهش هیدروکربن‌های نفتی خاک‌های آلوده منطقه مورد مطالعه، پیشنهاد می‌شوند. البته چون دو گـیاه فوق می‌توانند مورد چرای دام قرار گیرند، محیط کشت باید ایزوله شود و از ورود دام جلوگیری شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation the Phytoremediation of Oil-contaminated Soils Around Isfahan Oil Refinery

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farida Iraji-Asiabadi 1
  • Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri 2
  • Mohsen Soleymani 3
1 PhD in Environmental Sciences, Department of Environment, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University
2 Prof., Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran
3 Ass. Prof., Dept. of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Petroleum compounds are pollutants that most commonly occur in soils around oil refineries and that often find their ways into groundwater resources. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective alternative to physicochemical methods for oil-contaminated soil remediation, where feasible. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soils around Isfahan Oil Refinery. Four different plants (namely, sorghum, barley, agropyron, and festuca) were initially evaluated in terms of their germinability in both contaminated and control (non-contaminated) soils. Sorghum and barley (recording the highest germinability values) were chosen as the species for use in the phytoremediation experiments. Shoot and root dry weights, total and oil-degrading bacteria counts, microbial activity, and total concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were determined at harvest 120 days after planting. A significant difference was observed in the bacterial counts (total and oil-degrading bacteria) between the planted soils and the control. In contaminated soils, a higher microbial activity was observed in the rhizosphere of the sorghum soil than in that of barley. TPHs concentration decreased by 52%‒64% after 120 days in contaminated soil in which sorghum and barley had been cultivated. This represented an improvement of 30% compared to the contaminated soil without plants. Based on the results obtained, sorghum and barley may be recommended for the removal of petro-contaminants in areas close to Isfahan Oil Refinery. Nevertheless, caution must be taken as such cultivated lands may need to be protected against grazing animals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil contamination
  • Petroleum Contaminants
  • Remediation
  • sorghum
  • Barley
1.   Gitypour, S., Nabi Bidhendi, Gh.R., and Gorghi, M.A. (2004). “Contamination of soils near the Tehran oil refinery by leakage of crude oil.” Environmental Studies, 30(34), 39-45. (In Persian).

2. Khan, A.G. (2005). “Role of soil microbes in the rhizospheres of plants growing on trace metal contaminated soils in phytoremediation.” J. of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 18(4), 355-364.

3. Rezvani, M., Noor-Mohammadi, G.H., and Zafarian,  F. (2005). “Cleaning up of contaminated soil, groundwater and air by plants.” J. Agricultural Sciences, 11, 7-25. (In Persian).

4. Leahy, J.G., and Colwell, R.R. (1990). “Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons in the environment.” Microbiological Reviews, 54(3), 305-315.

5. Newman, L.A., and Reynolds, C.M. (2005). “Bacteria and phytoremediation: New uses for endophytic bacteria in plants.” Trends in Biotechnology, 23(1), 6-8.

6. Cunningham, S.D., Shann, J.R., Crowley, D.E., and Anderson, T.A. (1997). “Phytoremediation of contaminated water and soil.” Kruger, E.L. Anderson, T.A. and Coats, J.R. (Eds.). Phytoremediation of soil and water contaminants, ACS Symposium Series No. 664. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

7. Luepromchai, E., Lertthamrongsak, W., Pinphanichakarn, P., Thaniyavarn, S., Pattaragulwanit, K., and Juntongjin, K. (2007). “Biodegradation of PAHs in petroleum-contaminated soil using tamarind leaves as microbial inoculums.” Songklanakarin J. of Science and Technology, 29(2), 515- 527.

8. Diab, E.A. (2008). “Phytoremediation of oil contaminated desert soil using the rhizosphere effects.” Global J. of Environmental Research, 2 (2), 66-73.

9. Zhang, Z., Zhou, Q., Peng, S., and Cai, Z. (2010). “Remediation of petroleum contaminated soils by joint action of Pharbitis nil L. and its microbial community.” Science of the Total Environment, 408(22),
5600-5605.

10. Lu, S., Teng, Y., Wang, J., and Sun, Z. (2010). “Enhancement of pyrene removed from contaminated soils by Bidens Maximowicziana.” Chemosphere, 81(5), 645-650.

11. Adam, G., and Duncan, H. (2002). “Influence of diesel fuel on seed germination.” Environmental pollution, 120(2), 363-370.

12. Banks, M.K.,  Lee, E., and Schwab, A. P. (1999). “Evaluation of dissipation mechanisms for benzo(a) pyrene in the rhizosphere of tall Fescue.” J. of Environmental Quality, 28(1), 294-298.

13. McCutcheon, S.C., and Schnoor, J.L. (2004). Phytoremediation, transformation and control of contaminants, (Vol. 121). John Wiley and Sons Inc., N.Y.

14. Rangzan, N., and landi, A. (2007). “The role of plants in the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated Soils.” Scientific J. of Agriculture, 30(3), 79-91. (In Persian)

15. Huang, X.D., El-Alawi, Y., Gurska, J., Glick, B.R., and Greenberg, B.M. (2005). “A multi-process phytoremediation system for decontamination of persistent total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from soils.” Microchemical Journal, 81(1), 139-147.

16. Tang, J., Lu, X., Sun, Q., and Zhu, W. (2012). “Aging effect of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil under different attenuation conditions.” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 149, 109-117.

17. Thomas, G.W. (1996). “Soil pH and soil acidity.” Sparks D.L. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, American Society of Agronomy, Madison Wisconsin USA. 475-490.

18. Rhoades,  J.D. (1996). “Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids.” Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., and Keeny D.R. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, American Society of Agronomy, Madison Wisconsin USA. 417-435.

19. Nelson,  D.W., and Sommer, L.E. (1982). “Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter.” Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., and Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, American Society of Agronomy, Madison Wisconsin, USA. 539-576.

20. Bremner, J.M., and Mulvaney C.S. (1982). “Nitrogen-Total.” Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., and Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), Methods of soil chemical analysis, American Society of Agronomy., Madison Wisconsin, USA.
595-624.

21. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., and Keeney, D.R. (1982). Methods of soil analysis, American Society of Agronomy. Madison Wisconsin USA. 1159.

22. Bower, C.A.,  Reitmeir, R.F., and Fireman, M. (1952). “Exchangeable cation analysis of  saline and alkali soils.” Soil Science, 73(4), 251-261.

23. Olsen, S.R., and Sommers, L.E. (1982). “Phosphorus.” Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R., Baker, D.E., Ellis, R., and Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, American Society of Agronomy, Madison Wisconsin, USA. 403-430.

24. Christopher, S., Hein, P., Marsden, J., and Shurleff, A.S. (1988). Evaluation of methods 3540 (soxhlet) and 3550 (Sonication) for evaluation of appendix IX analyses from solid samples, SCUBED, Report for EPA contract 68-03-33-75, Work Assignment No.03, Document No. (pp. 523-546). SSS.

25. Samimi, S.V., Akbari Rad, R., and Ghanizadeh, F. (2009). “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination level in collected samples from vicinity of a highway.” Iranian J. of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 6(1), 41-52.

26. U.S. EPA. (1984). Interalaboratory comparison stunt: Methods for volatile and semi–volatile compounds, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, Las Vegas, NV, EPA. 600/4- 84- 027.

27. Besalatpour, A.A., Hajabbasi, M.A., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H., and Afyuni, M. (2008). “Remediation of petroleum contaminated soils around the Tehran oil refinery using Phytostimulation method.” J. of Agricultural. Sciences. Natural. Resources, 44, 13-23. (In Persian).

28. Soleimani, M., Afyuni, M., Hajabbasi, M.A., Nourbakhsh, F., Sabzalian, M.R., and Christensen, J.H. (2010). “Phytoremediation of an aged petroleum contaminated soil using endophyte infected and non-infected grasses.” Chemosphere, 81(9), 1084-1090.

29. Reilley, K.A., Banks, M.K., and Schwab, A.P. (1996). “Dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Rhizosphere.” J. Environmental Quality, 25(2), 212-219.

30. Maila, M.P., and  Cloete, T.E. (2002). “Germination of Lepidium sativum as a method to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from contaminated soil.” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 50(2), 107-113.

31.  Smith, M.J.,  Flowers, T.H.,  Duncan, H.J., and  Alder, J. (2006). “Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on germination and subsequent growth of grasses and legumes in freshly contaminated soil and soil with aged PAHs residues.” Environmental Pollution, 141(3), 519-525.

32. Cheema, S.A., Khan, M.I., Tang, X., Zhang, C., Shen, C., Malik, Z., Ali, S., Yang, J., Shen, K., Chen, X., and Chen, Y. (2009). “Enhancement of phenanthrene and pyrene degradation in rhizosphere of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea).” J. of Hazardous Materials, 166(2), 1226-1231.

33. Chaineau, C.H., Morel, J.L., and Oudot, J. (1997). “Phytotoxicity and plant uptake of fuel oil hydrocarbons.” J. of  Evironmental. Quality, 26(6), 1478-1483.

34. Abedi Koupai , J., Ghaheri , E., Eslamian, S. S., and Hosseini,  H. (2013). “Investigation the kinetic models of biological removal of petroleum contaminated soil around oil pipeline using ryegrass.” J. of Water and Wastewater, Vol. 25. No. 1 (89), 62-68. (In Persian).

35. Liste, H.H., and Alexander, M. (2000). “Accumulation of phenanthrene and pyrene in rhizosphere soil.” Chemosphere, 40(1), 11-14.

36. Hutchinson, S.L., Banks, M.K., and Schwab, A.P. (2001). “Bioremediation and biodegradation. Phytoremediation of aged petroleum sludge: Effect of inorganic fertilizer.” J. of Evironmental, Quality, 30(2), 395-403.

37.  Peng, S., Zhou, Q., Cai, Z., and Zhang, Z. (2009). “Phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils by Mirabilis Jalapa L. in a greenhouse plot experiment.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 168(2), 1490-1496.

38. Kaimi, E., Mukaidani, T.,  Miyoshi, S., and Tamaki, M. (2006). “Ryegrass enhancement of biodegradation in diesel-contaminated soil.” Environmental and Experimental Botany, 55(1), 110-119.

39. Agamuthu, P., Abioye, O.P., and Abdul Aziz, A. (2010). “Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with used lubricating oil using Jatropha curcas.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 179(1), 891-894.

40. Marin, J.A., Hernandez, T., and Garcia, C. (2005). “Bioremediation of oil refinery sludge by land farming in semiarid conditions: influence on microbial activity.” Environmental Research, 98(2), 185-195.

41. Benyahia, F., Abdulkarim, M., Zekri, A., Chaalal, O., and  Hasanain, H. (2005). “Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soils: A black art or an engineering challenge?.” Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 83(4), 364-370.

42. Diplock, E.E., Mardlin, D.P., Killham, K.S., and  Paton, G.I. (2009). “Predicting  bioremediation of hydrocarbons: Laboratory to field scale.” Environmental Pollution, 157(6), 1831-1840.

43. Lin, T.C., Pan, P.T.,  and  Cheng, S.S. (2010). “Ex situ bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 176(1), 27-34.

44. Li, C.H., Ma, B.L., and Zhang, T.O. (2002). “Soil bulk density effects on soil microbial population and enzyme activities during the growth of maize (Zea Mays L.) planted in large pots under field exposure.” Canadian J. of Soil Science, 82(2), 147- 154.

45. Gaskin, S.E., and Bentham, R.H. (2010). “Rhizoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil using Australian native grasses.” Science of the Total Environment, 408(17), 3683-3688.

46. Moreira, I.T.A.,  Oliveira, O.M.C., Triguis, J.A., Santos, A.M.P., Queiroz, A.F.S., Martins, C.M.S., Silva, C.S., and Jesus, R.S. (2011). “Phytoremediation using Rizophora mangle L. in mangrove sediments contaminated by persistent total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH's).” Microchemical Journal, 99(2), 376-382.

47. Tejeda-Agredanoa, M.C., Gallego, S., Vila, J., Grifoll, M., Ortega-Calvo, J.J., and Cantos, M. (2013). “Influence of the sunflower rhizosphere on the biodegradation of PAHs in soil.” Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 57, 830-840.