شبیه‌سازی تخصیص تلفیقی کمی و کیفی منابع آب سطحی و زیرزمینی شرب شهر مشهد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی عمران، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشیار، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

مطالعات نشان می‌دهد علی‌رغم بهره‌برداری از حداکثر توان تولید منابع آب سطحی و زیرزمینی داخل و خارج شهر مشهد و اجرای طرح عظیم انتقال آب از سد دوستی، کماکان این شهر از سال 1400 با مشکل کمبود روزانه آب به میزان 7/1 متر مکعب بر ثانیه مواجه خواهد شد که در صورت لحاظ کیفیت منابع، این کمبود که از سال 1390 شروع شده است، تشدید شده و معادل 9/0 متر مکعب بر ثانیه خواهد بود. لذا، ارائه راهکارهای کوتاه مدت و میان مدت برای تأمین آب شرب این شهر ضروری است. در این تحقیق، به مدل‌سازی کمی و کیفی منابع سطحی و زیرزمینی تأمین آب شرب شهر مشهد پرداخته شد. مدل‌سازی کیفی منابع بر اساس شاخص کیفیت آب‌های سطحی و زیرزمینی انجام گرفت و منابع آب در سه دسته کیفی بدون محدودیت، با محدودیت متوسط و محدودیت بالا برای شرب طبقه بندی شدند. سپس پهنه‌های فشاری از لحاظ تقاضای شرب و منابع تأمین بررسی شده و بعد از یکپارچه‌سازی در محیط نرم‌افزار مادیسم، مدل‌سازی شدند. این مدل برای سال1390 صحت‌سنجی شده و سپس با در نظر گرفتن اقدامات مؤثر بر وضعیت منابع آبی منطقه و وضعیت کیفی منابع سناریوهای مختلف برای دوره بلند مدت 30 ساله تدوین شدند. در سال 1420 میزان کمبود روزانه آب در ساعات اوج مصرف در صورت استفاده از منابع بدون محدودیت به 38 درصد خواهد رسید که در صورت بهره ‌جستن از منابع بدون لحاظ کیفیت، این میزان به 28 درصد کاهش می‌یابد. رقیق‌سازی به‌عنوان یکی از راهکارها برای استفاده از حداکثر پتانسیل کمی و کیفی منابع برای تأمین نیازهای شرب در این منطقه ارائه شده است. در صورت رقیق‌سازی میزان کسری روزانه آب معادل 30 درصد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Simulation of Integrated Qualitative and Quantitative Allocation of Surafce and Underground Water Resources to Drinking Water Demand in Mashhad

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mansoureh Atashi 1
  • kamran davary 2
  • Mohammad Bagher Sharifi 3
1 MSc Graduate of Civil Engineerig, Department of Engineeing, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad
2 Assos. Prof., College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad
3 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Engineering, Ferdowsi Universiry of Mashhad, Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Despite the fact that both surface and groundwater resources inside and outside the city of Mashhad have been already exploited to their maximum capacity and that the large water transfer Doosti Dam Project has been already implemented to transfer a considerable quanity of water to Mashhad, the city will be encountering a daily water shortage of about 1.7 m3/s by 2021. The problem would be even worse if the quality of the water resources are taken into account, in which case, the shortage would start even sooner in 2011 when the water deficit will be about 0.9 m3/s. As a result, it is essential to develop short- and medium-term strategies for secure adequate water supplies for the city's domestic water demand. The present study aims to carry out a qualitative and quantitative modeling of surface and groundwater resources supplying Mashhad domestic water. The qualitative model is based on the quality indices of surface and groundwater resources according to which the resources are classified in the three quality categories of resources with no limitation, those with moderate limitations, and those with high limitations for use as domestic water supplies. The pressure zones are then examined with respect to the potable water demand and supply to be simulated in the MODSIM environment. The model thus developed is verified for the 2012 data based on the measures affecting water resources in the region and various scenarios are finally evaluated for a long-term 30-year period. Results show that the peak hourdaily water shortage in 2042for the zone supplied from no limitation resources will be 38%. However, this value will drop to 28% if limitations due to resource quality are also taken into account. Finally, dilution is suggested as a solution for exploiting the maximum quantitative and qualitative potential of the resources used as domestic water supplies. In this situation, the daily peak hour water shortage will be equal to 31%.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Decision support system
  • MODSIM
  • Water Allocation Scenarios
  • Dilution
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