کاهش گرفتگی غشا در فرایند MBR با استفاده تلفیقی از NaOCl به‌عنوان اکسیدان و FeCl3 به‌عنوان لخته‌ساز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه مهندسی محیط زیست، دانشکده محیط زیست، پردیس دانشکده‌های فنی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه مهندسی محیط زیست، دانشکده محیط زیست، پردیس دانشکده‌های فنی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

10.22093/wwj.2019.187404.2876

چکیده

در این پژوهش استفاده تلفیقی از فرایندهای اکسیداسیون و لخته‌سازی به‌منظور کاهش گرفتگی غشا در یک بیوراکتور غشایی بررسی شد. NaOCl به‌عنوان اکسیدان و FeCl3 به‌عنوان لخته‌ساز ارزان قیمت و متداول در صنعت برای پیش تصفیه و افزایش زمان بهره‌برداری از غشا استفاده شد. دز بهینه FeCl3 و NaOCl از طریق آزمایش‌های جار به‌ترتیب 2 و 2 میلی‌گرم در لیتر محاسبه شد که منجر به کارایی حذف 1/20 درصد مواد محلول ترشح شده از میکرب‌ها و 91 درصد کدورت شد. سپس با استفاده از دز بهینه، مواد افزودنی سناریوهای مختلف بررسی شد و سناریوهای برتر برای انجام آزمایش‌های بلندمدت انتخاب شدند. آزمایش‌های بلندمدت در سه مرحله بدون تزریق ماده شیمیایی (مرحله اول)، با تزریق FeCl3 (مرحله دوم) و با تزریق همزمان NaOCl و FeCl3 (مرحله سوم) انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که تزریق مواد افزودنی، تأثیر منفی بر باکتری‌های نیتریفای و هتروتروف ندارد. روش جدید توسعه داده شده در این پژوهش به‌طور چشمگیری فشار انتقال غشایی را کاهش داد به‌طوری که زمان بهره‌برداری از غشا در مرحله سوم، 3/4 برابر نسبت به مرحله اول و 6/2 برابر نسبت به مرحله دوم افزایش یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Membrane Fouling Reduction in a MBR Process by Combination of NaOCl Oxidation and FeCl3 Flocculation Agents

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Sabouhi 1
  • Ali Torabian 2
  • Naser Mehrdadi 2
  • Ali Bozorg 3
1 PhD Student, School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Prof., School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The combination of oxidation and flocculation has been used to alleviate the membrane fouling in MBR systems. As common and cheap additives, NaOCl and FeCl3 were employed to prolong the operation life of the membranes. To achieve the highest performance in terms of the SMPs and COD removal, the optimum dosages of FeCl3 and NaOCl additives were first evaluated. To do so, using the jar test, optimum dosages of 2 mg/L and 2 mg/L were respectively determined for the FeCl3 and NaOCl, leading to the highest possible SMPs and turbidity removals of 20.1% and 91%. Using such optimal dosages, different scenarios were examined and the MBR experiments were then conducted in three stages designed to have no chemical addition (stage 1), FeCl3 (stage 2), and a combination of FeCl3 and NaOCl (stage 3) to assess the effect of the additives on membrane performance under continuous flow condition. The results revealed that, although at such dosages, the additives were not able to affect the nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria, when simultaneously employed (stage 3), they were able to significantly lower the cake layer resistance and the operating time by 4.3 and 2.6 times when compared to the conventional MBR systems (stage 1) and the ones flocculated by FeCl3 (stage 2).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Membrane bioreactor
  • Membrane Fouling
  • Membrane
  • NaOCl
  • FeCl3
Bu, F., Gao, B., Shen, X., Wang, W. & Yue, Q. 2019. The combination of coagulation and ozonation as a pre-treatment of ultrafiltration in water treatment. Chemosphere, 231, 349-356.
Dizge, N., Koseoglu-Imer, D. Y., Karagunduz, A. & Keskinler, B. 2011. Effects of cationic polyelectrolyte on filterability and fouling reduction of submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR). Journal of Membrane Science, 377, 175-181.
Drews, A. 2010. Membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors-characterisation, contradictions, cause and cures. Journal of Membrane Science, 363, 1-28.
Du, X., Yang, W., Zhao, J., Zhang, W., Cheng, X., Liu, J., et al. 2019. Peroxymonosulfate-assisted electrolytic oxidation/coagulation combined with ceramic ultrafiltration for surface water treatment: membrane fouling and sulfamethazine degradation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 235, 779-788.
Hasnine, M. T., Erkan, H. S. & Engin, G. O. 2017. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment: approaches to membrane fouling control. ICOCEE, Cappadocia, Nevsehir, Turkey, 8-10.
Huang, S., Shi, X., Bi, X., Lee, L. Y. & Ng, H. Y. 2019. Effect of ferric hydroxide on membrane fouling in membrane bioreactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 292, 121852.
Ji, J., Qiu, J., Wong, F.-S. & Li, Y. 2008. Enhancement of filterability in MBR achieved by improvement of supernatant and floc characteristics via filter aids addition. Water Research, 42, 3611-3622.
Koseoglu, H., Yigit, N. O., Iversen, V., Drews, A., Kitis, M., Lesjean, B., et al. 2008. Effects of several different flux enhancing chemicals on filterability and fouling reduction of membrane bioreactor (MBR) mixed liquors. Journal of Membrane Science, 320, 57-64.
Le-Clech, P., Chen, V. & Fane, T. A. 2006. Fouling in membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment. Journal of Membrane Science, 284, 17-53.
Le- Clech, P., Jefferson, B., Chang, I. S. & Judd, S. J. 2003. Critical flux determination by the flux-step method in a submerged membrane bioreactor. Journal of Membrane Science, 227, 81-93.
Lee, J., Ahn, W.-Y. & Lee, C.-H. 2001. Comparison of the filtration characteristics between attached and suspended growth microorganisms in submerged membrane bioreactor. Water Research, 35, 2435-2445.
Lee, S. & Kim, M.-H. 2013. Fouling characteristics in pure oxygen MBR process according to MLSS concentrations and COD loadings. Journal of Membrane Science, 428, 323-330.
Liu, J., He, K., Tang, S., Wang, T. & Zhang, Z. 2019. A comparative study of ferrous, ferric and ferrate pretreatment for ceramic membrane fouling alleviation in reclaimed water treatment. Separation and Purification Technology, 217, 118-127.
Liu, J., Zhang, Z., Liu, Z. & Zhang, X. 2018. Integration of ferrate (VI) pretreatment and ceramic membrane reactor for membrane fouling mitigation in reclaimed water treatment. Journal of Membrane Science, 552, 315-325.
Ma, B., Qi, J., Wang, X., Ma, M., Miao, S., Li, W., et al. 2018. Moderate KMnO4-Fe (II) pre-oxidation for alleviating ultrafiltration membrane fouling by algae during drinking water treatment. Water Research, 142, 96-104.
Mcadam, E. J., Judd, S. J., Cartmell, E. & Jefferson, B. 2007. Influence of substrate on fouling in anoxic immersed membrane bioreactors. Water Research, 41, 3859-3867.
Meng, F., Chae, S.-R., Drews, A., Kraume, M., Shin, H.-S. & Yang, F. 2009. Recent advances in membrane bioreactors (MBRs): membrane fouling and membrane material. Water Research, 43, 1489-1512.
Moser, P. B., Ricci, B. C., Reis, B. G., Neta, L. S., Cerqueira, A. C. & Amaral, M. C. 2018. Effect of MBR-H2O2/UV hybrid pre-treatment on nanofiltration performance for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. Separation and Purification Technology, 192, 176-184.
Mulkerrins, D., Dobson, A. & Colleran, E. 2004. Parameters affecting biological phosphate removal from wastewaters. Environment International, 30, 249-259.
Mutamim, N. S. A., Noor, Z. Z., Hassan, M. a. A., Yuniarto, A. & Olsson, G. 2013. Membrane bioreactor: applications and limitations in treating high strength industrial wastewater. Chemical Engineering Journal, 225, 109-119.
Özacar, M. & Şengil, I. A. 2003. Enhancing phosphate removal from wastewater by using polyelectrolytes and clay injection. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 100, 131-146.
Rathi, R. & Satheesh, S. 2012. Exposure to chlorine affects the extracellular polymeric substance production and cell surface hydrophobicity in biofilm bacteria. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, 41, 17-24.
Sabouhi, M., Torabian, A., Bozorg, A. & Mehrdadi, N. 2020. A novel convenient approach toward the fouling alleviation in membrane bioreactors using the combined methods of oxidation and coagulation. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 33, 101018.
Shi, Y., Huang, J., Zeng, G., Gu, Y., Hu, Y., Tang, B., et al. 2018. Evaluation of soluble microbial products (SMP) on membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) at the fractional and overall level: a review. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 17, 71-85.
Sun, G., Zhang, C., Li, W., Yuan, L., He, S. & Wang, L. 2019. Effect of chemical dose on phosphorus removal and membrane fouling control in a UCT-MBR. Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering, 13, 1.
Wang, Y., Peng, Y. & Stephenson, T. 2009. Effect of influent nutrient ratios and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on simultaneous phosphorus and nitrogen removal in a two-sludge sequencing batch reactor process. Bioresource Technology, 100, 3506-3512.
Xing, J., Liang, H., Chuah, C. J., Bao, Y., Luo, X., Wang, T., et al. 2019. Insight into Fe (II)/UV/chlorine pretreatment for reducing ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling: effects of different natural organic fractions and comparison with coagulation. Water Research, 167, 115112.
Zhang, J., Chua, H. C., Zhou, J. & Fane, A. G. 2006. Factors affecting the membrane performance in submerged membrane bioreactors. Journal of Membrane Science, 284, 54-66.
Zhang, S., Xiong, J., Zuo, X., Liao, W., Ma, C., He, J., et al. 2019. Characteristics of the sludge filterability and microbial composition in PAC hybrid MBR: effect of PAC replenishment ratio. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 145, 10-17.