بهبود کیفیت شیرابه محل دفن پسماند شهر اصفهان به روش گیاه‌پالایی با استفاده از گیاهان وتیور و نی به‌منظور استفاده در آبیاری فضای سبز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

10.22093/wwj.2019.186145.2867

چکیده

با توجه به کمبود شدید منابع آب در کشور، بهره‌برداری از فاضلاب‌های تصفیه شده شهری در بخش کشاورزی، روش مؤثری در برطرف نمودن نیاز‌ آبی گیاهان و همچنین کاهش آلودگی محیط‌زیست است. گیاه‌پالایی، به‌عنوان روشی طبیعی، با مخاطرات زیست‌محیطی کمتر برای رفع بسیاری از آلاینده‌ها، معرفی شده است. گیاه وتیور‌گراس (Vetiver zizanioides L. Nash) و گیاه نی (Phragmites australis) را می‌توان به‌عنوان دو گیاه مناسب به سبب ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک و مورفولوژیک دارای پتانسیل بالا در زمینه تصفیه فاضلاب‌ها و احیای زمین‌های با ارزش نام برد. پژوهش حاضر در راستای بهبود کیفیت شیرابه زباله با استفاده از گیاهان وتیورگراس و نی و کشت آن به‌صورت هیدروپونیک در محیط شیرابه زباله و ارزیابی کارایی آن در حذف و پالایش آلاینده‌ها انجام شد. به این منظور، پایلوتی به حجم کلی 200 لیتر از جنس فایبرگلاس تهیه شد. همچنین در تیمارها از دو تراکم گیاهی (2 تایی و 4 تایی بر960 سانتی‌متر مربع) و تیمار شاهد (بدون گیاه) و چهار زمان ماند (3، 7، 14 و21 روز)، در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی استفاده شد. در پایان هر دوره، COD، نیترات و فسفات اندازه‌گیری و بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که میزان کاهش COD، BOD، فسفات و نیترات پس از مدت 21 روز برای مخزن حاوی گیاه وتیور به‌ترتیب 68، 60، 82 و 83 درصد و برای مخزن حاوی گیاه نی به‌ترتیب 65، 30، 60 و 63 درصد بود. همچنین، بهترین تراکم در انجام پالایش توسط گیاه وتیورگراس و گیاه نی در محیط بسته، تراکم 4 تایی بوده است. بر اساس نتایج این پژوهش، گیاهان وتیورگراس و نی پتانسیل خوبی در بهبود کیفیت شیرابه محل دفن پسماند دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improving Isfahan Landfill Leachate Quality by Phytoremediation Using Vetiver and Phragmites Plants in Green Space Irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jahangir Abedi Koupai 1
  • Mohammad Ali Jamalian 2
  • Mohammad Mahdi Dorafshan 2
1 Prof. Dept. of Water Engineering, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
2 Former Graduate Student, Dept. of Water Engineering, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Considering the severe shortage of water resources in Iran, the utilization of treated municipal wastewater in the agricultural sector is an effective way for supplying water requirement of plants and reducing environmental pollution. Phytoremediation is an environmentally- friendly method to eliminate many pollutants. Vetiver (Vetiver zizanioides L. Nash) and reed plant (Phragmites australis) are two special plants for phytoremediation because of their unique physiological and morphological characteristics. The present research was carried out to improve the quality of leachate by vetiver and reed plant and, using hydroponic system evaluate their efficiency in the removal of contaminants. For this purpose a pilot study (containers containing 200 L leachate) was conducted including two plants, two densities, four retention times (3, 7, 14, 21 day) and control (with no plants). All experiments were performed with three replications. At the end of each period, BOD, COD, nitrate and phosphate were determined and evaluated. Results showed that the amount of COD, BOD, phosphate and nitrate was decreased by 68, 60, 82 and 83%, respectively, for the vetiver grass after 21 days. Also, results showed that the amount of COD, BOD, phosphate and nitrate was decreased by 65, 30, 60 and 63%, respectively, for the reed plant after 21 days. Finally, the results indicated that the best density for the treatment of vetiver grass and reed plant was a density of 4 in a closed environment. According to the results of this study, the vetiver plant and the reed plant have good potential to reduce pollutants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bioremediation
  • Leachate Treatment
  • Hydroponic
  • Phragmites
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